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Adobe Creative Cloud is a set of applications and services from Adobe Inc. In Creative Cloud, a monthly or annual subscription service is delivered over the Internet.
Online updates and multiple languages are included in the CC subscription. Creative Cloud was initially hosted on Amazon Web Services , but a new agreement with Microsoft has the software, beginning with the version, hosted on Microsoft Azure. Previously, Adobe offered individual products as well as software suites containing several products such as Adobe Creative Suite or Adobe eLearning Suite with a perpetual software license.
Adobe first announced the Creative Cloud in October Another version of Adobe Creative Suite was released the following year. The Adobe Creative Cloud retains many of the features of Adobe Creative Suite and introduces new features;  foremost is the instant availability of upgrades, saving to the cloud, and easier sharing. In June , the company announced 14 new versions of the Creative Cloud essential desktop tools, four new mobile apps, and the availability of creative hardware for enterprise, education and photography customers.
The video disc authoring program Adobe Encore and the web-focused bitmap editor Adobe Fireworks were both discontinued by Adobe in , but were still available as downloads via Creative Cloud until May Adobe offers four tiers of the Creative Cloud subscription service for individuals there are other types for Business and Schools : . The change from perpetual licenses to a subscription model was met with significant criticism.
Shifting to a software as a service model, Adobe announced more frequent feature updates to its products and the eschewing of their traditional release cycles. Consequently, if subscribers cancel or stop paying, they will lose access to the software as well as the ability to open work saved in proprietary file formats.
Although investors applauded the move, many customers reacted negatively. Creative Cloud has been criticized for broken file syncing, one of its core features. Some of their customers experienced a loss of trust in Adobe as a company and an attendant rise in anxiety.
In May the service was interrupted for over a day due to a login outage leaving graphics professionals locked out of Creative Cloud. I’m so sorry again for the frustration. Online articles began offering examples of replacements of Adobe products,      with competing products directly offering alternatives, and launching promotions for dissatisfied Adobe customers.
Although Creative Cloud was expected to curtail the piracy of Photoshop ,  which is one of the most pirated pieces of software,  Creative Cloud was hacked and its applications made available via unauthorized means a day after it officially launched. On May 14, , some Creative Cloud users received emails from Adobe stating that licenses to previous versions of Creative Cloud applications had been terminated and that users could face civil action from third parties if they did not update the software on their personal computers.
A representative from Adobe confirmed the letter’s authenticity. The situation prompted renewed criticism of Adobe’s subscription-only business model. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Software as a service offering from Adobe Inc. October 26, Retrieved October 26, Adobe Newsroom. CBS Interactive. Retrieved February 24, Cemal May 8, Retrieved May 8, News Center. September 26, Retrieved May 10, The Next Web. Retrieved July 8, Retrieved July 13, PC Magazine.
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Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. April 4, ; 17 years ago This is in contrast to many other file formats e. JPG or. GIF that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30, pixels, and a length limit of two gigabytes.
These formats are required to use the file in publications or on the web. Photoshop can also create and use files with the extension. PSB, which stands for “Photoshop Big” also known as “large document format”. The dimension limit was apparently chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints it is not close to a power of two, as is 30, but for ease of software testing. Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins or plug-ins.
Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe’s specifications. Some are free and some are commercial software. Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications. There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, color correction, and automation.
The most popular plugins are the filter plugins also known as a 8bf plugins , available under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content. Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well-known companies associated with them:. Adobe Camera Raw also known as ACR and Camera Raw is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resulting images can be processed by Photoshop.
Upon loading Photoshop, a sidebar with a variety of tools with multiple image-editing functions appears to the left of the screen.
These tools typically fall under the categories of drawing ; painting ; measuring and navigation ; selection ; typing ; and retouching. These can be expanded to reveal similar tools. In some newer versions hovering along the tools gives a small Video glimpse of the tool.
Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool. The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points. The free form pen tool allows the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them from a background.
The Clone Stamp tool duplicates one part of an image to another part of the same image by way of a brush. The duplication is either in full or in part depending on the mode. The user can also clone part of one layer to another layer. The Clone Stamp tool is useful for duplicating objects or removing a defect in an image. Photoshop provides an array of shape tools including rectangles, rounded rectangles, ellipses, polygons and lines.
These shapes can be manipulated by the pen tool, direct selection tool etc. In addition, Photoshop provides its own shapes like animals, signs and plants. The eyedropper tool selects a color from an area of the image that is clicked, and samples it for future use. Selection tools are used to select all or any part of a picture to perform cut, copy, edit, or retouching operations. The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the portions outside the chosen section.
This tool assists in creating a focus point on an image and unnecessary or excess space. The crop tool is in the tools palette, which is located on the right side of the document.
By placing the cursor over the image, the user can drag the cursor to the desired area. Once the Enter key is pressed, the area outside the rectangle will be cropped.
The area outside the rectangle is the discarded data, which allows for the file size to be decreased. The slice and slice select tools, like the crop tool, are used in isolating parts of images. The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections, and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and CSS are applied. The move tool can be used to drag the entirety of a single layer or more if they are selected.
Alternatively, once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas. The marquee is a tool that can make selections that are a single row, single column, rectangular and elliptical.
This tool can also crop an image; it allows for better control. In contrast to the crop tool, the marquee tool allows for more adjustments to the selected area before cropping. The only marquee tool that does not allow cropping is the elliptical. Although the single row and column marquee tools allow for cropping, they are not ideal, because they only crop a line.
The rectangular marquee tool is the preferred option. Once the tool has been selected, dragging the tool across the desired area will select it. The selected area will be outlined by dotted lines, referred to as “marching ants”. To set a specific size or ratio, the tool options bar provides these settings.
Before selecting an area, the desired size or ratio must be set by adjusting the width and height. Any changes such as color, filters, location, etc. To crop the selection, the user must go to the image tab and select crop. The lasso tool is similar to the marquee tool, however, the user can make a custom selection by drawing it freehand. The regular lasso tool allows the user to have drawing capabilities. Photoshop will complete the selection once the mouse button is released.
The user may also complete the selection by connecting the end point to the starting point. The “marching ants” will indicate if a selection has been made. The polygonal lasso tool will draw only straight lines, which makes it an ideal choice for images with many straight lines. Unlike the regular lasso tool, the user must continually click around the image to outline the shape.
To complete the selection, the user must connect the end point to the starting point just like the regular lasso tool.
Magnetic lasso tool are considered the smart tool. It can do the same as the other two, but it can also detect the edges of an image once the user selects a starting point. It detects by examining the color pixels as the cursor moves over the desired area. Closing the selection is the same as the other two, which should also should display the “marching ants” once the selection has been closed.
The quick selection tool selects areas based on edges, similarly to the magnetic lasso tool. The difference between this tool and the lasso tool is that there is no starting and ending point. For this reason, the selected area can be added onto as much as possible without starting over. By dragging the cursor over the desired area, the quick selection tool detects the edges of the image.
The “marching ants” allow the user to know what is currently being selected. Once the user is done, the selected area can be edited without affecting the rest of the image. One of the features that makes this tool especially user friendly is that the SHIFT key is not needed to add more to the selection; by default, extra mouse clicks will be added to the selection rather than creating a new selection.
The magic wand tool selects areas based on pixels of similar values. One click will select all neighboring pixels of similar value within a tolerance level set by the user. If the eyedropper tool is selected in the options bar, then the magic wand can determine the value needed to evaluate the pixels; this is based on the sample size setting in the eyedropper tool. This tool is inferior to the quick selection tool which works much the same but with much better results and more intuitive controls.
The user must decide what settings to use or if the image is right for this tool. The Eraser tool erases content based on the active layer. If the user is on the text layer, then any text across which the tool is dragged will be erased.
The eraser will convert the pixels to transparent, unless the background layer is selected. The size and style of the eraser can be selected in the options bar. This tool is unique in that it can take the form of the paintbrush and pencil tools. In addition to the straight eraser tool, there are two more available options — background eraser and magic eraser. The background eraser deletes any part of the image that is on the edge of an object. This tool is often used to extract objects from the background.
The magic eraser tool deletes based on similar colored pixels. It is very similar to the magic wand tool. This tool is ideal for deleting areas with the same color or tone that contrasts with the rest of the image. Using simple combinations of keys video layers can easily be modified, with other features such as adding text and creating animations using single images.
With the Extended version of Photoshop CS5, 2D elements of an artwork can easily become three-dimensional with the click of a button. Extrusions of texts, an available library of materials for three-dimensional, and even wrapping two-dimensional images around 3D geometry.
Third-party plugins have also been added to the most recent version of Photoshop where technologies such as the iPad have integrated the software with different types of applications.
Applications like the Adobe Eazel painting app allows the user to easily create paintings with their fingertips and use an array of different paint from dry to wet in order to create rich color blending.
The program will feature cloud syncing with other devices and a simpler interface than the desktop version. The plug-in allows users to remove noise without the side-effect of over-sharpening, add grain, and even perform post-crop vignetting. From version Artists can add color, adjust the shape or rotate the angles of imported models, or design original 3D models from scratch.
The Color Replacement Tool allows the user to change the color, while maintaining the highlights and shadows of the original image, of pieces of the image. By selecting Brushes and right clicking, the Color Replacement Tool is the third option down. What is important to note with this tool is the foreground color. The foreground color is what will be applied when painting along the chosen part of the image with the Color Replacement tool.
Photoshop and derivatives such as Photoshopped or just Shopped have become verbs that are sometimes used to refer to images edited by Photoshop,  or any image manipulation program. The same happens not only in English but as the Portuguese Wikipedia entry for image manipulation attests, even in that language, with the trademark being followed by the Portuguese verb termination -ar, yielding the word “photoshopar” to photoshop. Such derivatives are discouraged by Adobe  because, in order to maintain validity and protect the trademark from becoming generic , trademarks must be used as proper nouns.
Photoshop’s naming scheme was initially based on version numbers, from version 0. Adobe published 7 major and many minor versions before the October introduction of version 8. In February Adobe donated the source code of the 1. The first Photoshop CS was commercially released in October as the eighth major version of Photoshop. Photoshop CS increased user control with a reworked file browser augmenting search versatility, sorting and sharing capabilities and the Histogram Palette which monitors changes in the image as they are made to the document.
Match Color was also introduced in CS, which reads color data to achieve a uniform expression throughout a series of pictures. Photoshop CS2, released in May , expanded on its predecessor with a new set of tools and features. It included an upgraded Spot Healing Brush, which is mainly used for handling common photographic problems such as blemishes, red-eye, noise, blurring and lens distortion.
One of the most significant inclusions in CS2 was the implementation of Smart Objects, which allows users to scale and transform images and vector illustrations without losing image quality, as well as create linked duplicates of embedded graphics so that a single edit updates across multiple iterations.
Adobe responded to feedback from the professional media industry by implementing non-destructive editing as well as the producing and modifying of Bit High Dynamic Range HDR images, which are optimal for 3D rendering and advanced compositing. FireWire Previews could also be viewed on a monitor via a direct export feature. Image Warping makes it easy to digitally distort an image into a shape by choosing on-demand presets or by dragging control points. The File Browser was upgraded to Adobe Bridge, which functioned as a hub for productivity, imagery and creativity, providing multi-view file browsing and smooth cross-product integration across Adobe Creative Suite 2 software.
Camera Raw version 3. Photoshop CS2 brought a streamlined interface, making it easier to access features for specific instances. Retrieved February 11, October 18, Archived from the original PDF on May 24, Retrieved February 8, November 7, Adobe Systems. December 5, Archived from the original on December 19, Retrieved December 29, John Nack on Adobe. Adobe Blogs. May 16, Retrieved July 19, Retrieved September 5, Archived from the original on January 3, Veerle’s blog. Archived from the original on December 7, Retrieved December 6, Retrieved March 29, Retrieved April 19, October 13, Retrieved December 7, Archived from the original on May 18, Wikimedia Commons has media related to Adobe Illustrator.
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Tabbed dockable palettes, transform palette, align palette, Photoshop pixel filters, rasterize, punk, bloat, free distort, layout grid, vertical text tool, reshape tool. Pencil tool, bounding box handles, smart guides, actions palette, bitmap eyedropper, gradient mesh, live brushes, links palette.
Multiple artboards, transparency in gradients, blob brush, live gradient editing, separations previews, in-palette appearance editing. Perspective drawing tools, variable-width strokes, control over opacity in points on gradient meshes, shape builder tool similar to pathfinder tools and a bristle brush, which enables users to imitate real life brush strokes while maintaining vector format.
Adobe Mercury Performance System, bit memory support, new user interface, gradient on a stroke, pattern creator tool, ImageTrace replaces Live Trace. Deeper Creative Cloud integration font, color palette and settings syncing, Behance integration , new typing capabilities, multiple file place, images in brushes, CSS extraction.